Russian (CIS)English (United Kingdom)
ISSN 2223-165X

V.I. ABAEV NORTH-OSSETIAN INSTITUTE FOR HUMANITARIAN AND SOCIAL STUDIES

OF VLADIKAVKAZ SCIENCE CENTRE OF RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCE

AND THE GOVERNMENT OF NORTH OSSETIA-ALANIA

ИЗВЕСТИЯ СОИГСИ


Выпуск 28 (67) 2018
Contents Print

 
Salbiev T.K. The Frescoes of the Nuzal Temple as a Testimony of Interaction of Two Spiritual Traditions Print

In the article, it is proposed to consider the ability of the Ossetian ethno-cultural tradition to interact with world cultures, as an undeniable manifestation of its peculiar originality. To consider such an interaction with Christianity, which left the deepest trace in the Ossetian tradition, the necessity of rejecting the scenario of antagonistic interaction that is generally accepted in the Ossetian studies in favor of the friendly one is substantiated. In this case, the result of the interaction is "rewriting" the language of the local tradition of images and plots of high world culture. The medieval Nuzal church located at the cemetery of the influential clan of Tsarazontæ can be regarded as the meeting place for two traditions, allowing to bind this process not only in the socio-historical landscape, but also in temporal dimension. The main contents of this interaction is the change in the reception of the program focus of the frescoes of the medieval Nuzal church, taking place within the framework of the transition from a religious-historical tradition to a religious-mythological one. As a result of such transition, the liturgical basis, clearly discernable in their composition, could find its embodiment in the Ossetian ritual prayer, kºyvd | kuvd. Their own eschatological contents could be reinterpreted by tradition into the myth of the first creation, so that the central figure of the Savior could be consistently and naturally transformed into the image of the Creator. The most important condition for this transition is such a well-known phenomenon as the time inversion, sufficiently developed in the Ossetian mythological songs associated with wedding and agricultural rituals. Ultimately, instead of the usual delimitation of two medieval religious centers, it is possible to recognize the existence of one common center, equally acceptable for both traditions.

Keywords: ethnicity, cultural tradition, methodology, liturgy, eschatology, creation, time inversion.

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Ktsoeva S.G. “Descent into Hell” vs “The Legend of the Great Guest”: Christian Dogma in the Ethno-Religious System of the Ossetians Print

The article is devoted to the analysis of the Christian interference into the original ethno-religious system of the Ossetians. V. Miller in his “Ossetian etudes” referred to B. Gatiev’s work where the legend about Barastyr is narrated. This ruler of the world of the dead at the request of the “great guest” released sinners from the hell and welcomed them to the paradise. V.Miller suggested that this legend reflects the Christian dogmatic tradition of the Descent of Jesus Christ into hell. He, however, did not develop this hypothesis, and, to some extent, the present study is a scientific verification of this hypothesis. The analysis of the plot allows us to state with certainty its Christian basis. The undertaken comparative study of the Ossetian legend and Christian dogma revealed both coincidences and discrepancies between the separate elements of the legend with the canonical gospel. This necessitated addressing the Old and New Testament apocrypha, which relate this event.  The present analysis leaves little doubt about the accuracy of Millerʼs guess. The reference to non-canonical texts in the course of this study is also due to the meagerness of references to the Descent into hell. The analysis of the non-canonical Gospels in the course of the comparative study contributed to its significant objectification, as a result of which the article highlights the problem of apocryphal borrowings. Judging by the small number of publications, this problem is one of the least investigated in the Ossetian studies. In addition, the materials of the comparative study helped to identify the third, unexpected object of analysis – the Jewish elements in the religious pre-Easter ritual («sufæhæræn æхsæv») among Ossetians. This made it possible to extend the research beyond the actual worldview scope to the other field of the religious system – ethno-religious cult practice.

Keywords: V. Miller, B. Gatiev, ethnic religion of Ossetians, Christianity, Descent of Jesus Christ into hell, “the legend of the great guest”, apocrypha.

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Kulumbegov R.P. Kurysdzau as an Experience of Visionary in the Traditional Religious Beliefs of Ossetians Print

In the agrarian cult of the Ossetians a special place occupied by one of the forms of manifestation of visionary practice is that of kurysdzau. This was the name for special people, who had the ability to move to another world at definite times of the year. Due to the prerevolutionary researchers of the Ossetian culture and beliefs, we have a detailed description of this phenomenon, but in special studies the phenomenon of kurysdzau has not been adequately represented. It is important to note that for a long time visionaries were left without enough attention by the science, being considered to be an insufficiently important element of human culture. Belief of kurysdzau characterizes the idea of the Ossetians in old times about the influence of the deceased people on the growth of cereals. It is based on the cult of the dead, one of the main provisions of which was the superstition of people, that the dead can influence everyday life of the remaining generations. Thus, ancient idea of people about the forthcoming harvest and about economic conditions in the coming year are at the basis of kurysdzau practice. If sorcerers, fortunetellers and clairvoyants mainly performed order of an individual person or a family, the kurysdzau fulfilled that of the whole society. This attributed them a special status. People were afraid of the fortunetellers, but respect was always displayed to the kurysdzau. Travel to the word of the dead was linked with danger for the soul of a messenger, who could face lethal consequences upon return to the world of the living. The kurysdzau practice is the base of the oldest folk beliefs about the forthcoming harvest and the economic conditions in the coming year. The demand for this form of visionary activity was determined by the social request, as a tool for future analysis of agricultural activities in the current year.

Keywords: kurysdzau, Burku, Kuiris, cereals, cult of ancestors, agriculture.

 

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Kaziev E.V. The Structure of Circassian Fraternities According to the Information of the English Emissary on the West Caucasus J.S. Bell (1837—1839) Print

The article analyses the original English-language terms used by J.S. Bell to designate related groups as well as the equivalents of these terms in Russian and Adyghe languages and on this basis the structure of tribal collectives adopted by the Black Sea Circassians (Ubykhs) in the first half of the 19th century is considered. Critique of translations of the corresponding fragments in Russian-language editions of Bell’s «Journal» is given. Besides, the article analyses a number of similar terms in the languages of such peoples of the North Caucasus as Ingushes, Chechens, Ossetians, the peoples of Dagestan and analogous terms that have been circulating in the Russian language. A number of all these terms is compared with the modern scientific term «patronymy», that is used in the tradition of Russian ethnology to designate patri-unilinear related groups. On this basis the article arranges possible interlingual correspondences in the terminology and indicates the patrimonial structures, that are denoted by these terms, which are inherent in the social organization of the enlisted Caucasian peoples. The study made it possible to assert, that Bell used such original English terms as «fraternity», «clan» and «sept» to describe the order of organization of Circassian brotherhoods. The conclusion is drawn, that the latter two terms were used by Bell to define the meaning of the term “fraternity”, with the help of which he also denoted juratory alliances. It is noted that the absence in Russian language of equivalents of the terms “sept” and «clan» leads to using of the word “genus” for their translation, that is not their direct equivalent and, taking into account uncertainty of its concept in Russian science, in turn leads to confusion and ambiguity, that could be eliminated by using Bell’s original English terms, which as well have circulation in the modern scientific tradition.

Keywords: kinship, sept, fraternity, clan, patronymy.

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Zelnitskaya R.Sh. Modern Funeral and Memorial Rites of Karachays Print

The article is devoted to the funeral ritual complex that is part of the life cycle rites of the Karachays, one of the Caucasian peoples. According to Van Gennep the funeral rites cycle is split into two stages: the separation of the deceased from the community of living people that is his family and friends and his inclusion into the community of the ancestors. First stage consists of the washing of the body of the deceased, the wrapping of the body in a shroud, parting with the deceased, the removal of the body of the deceased rites. The prayer marcs the liminal phase when this action protects the soul of the deceased in the difficult transitional stage. The field material that author uses in the article was collected in 2017-year expedition. The related literature analysis and field material demonstrate that funeral rite has undergone certain changes over time. Some elements of the rite quite clearly show traces of paganism, Christian and Islamic influence. Also, Soviet requirements essentially influenced the funeral rite. The people began to bury their deceased ones in coffins and to decorate tombs with portraits of the deceased under the influence of the new ideological settings. At present, according with the study undertaken funeral rites of the people retain a significant number of elements of traditional national culture, Detailed study of funeral rites also demonstrates significant Islamic influence. Considering the number of ethnic traditions, funeral and memorial rituals occupy an important place in the system of the traditional ties. This manifests itself in the practice of mutual assistance and sharing the burden of grief with the family of the deceased.

Keywords: the Karachays, funeral, commemoration, ritual, mourning, Islam, death.

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Chochiev G.V. Ottoman Instructions on the Settlement of the North Caucasian Immigrants (1830s – 1870s) Print

The study of the history of the formation of the North Caucasian diasporas in the Middle East is an important prerequisite for an adequate understanding of their further ethno-social transformation and the current situation in the countries of the region. In this article, the main principles of organizational and administrative regulation of the reception, resettlement and primary adaptation of the North Caucasian immigrants in the Ottoman Empire in the 1830s–1870s are examined. In particular, the instructions on the settlement of the immigrants, the directive documents issued by the central government, detailing the legal basis for the process of North Caucasian colonization, have been characterized. The article relies mainly on the data of Ottoman archival materials, most of which are being introduced into scientific circulation. The study found that the Porte’s approaches to the problem of settlement of the North Caucasian immigrants underwent certain evolution during the reviewed period, being corrected according to current circumstances and challenges. The analysis of the contents of the instructions unambiguously points to the desire of the Ottoman authorities to achieve the fast economic rehabilitation and re-socialization of their new subjects and their transformation into a productive segment of the agrarian population. At the same time, with the rise of the immigration flow, especially since the mid-1860s, the trend towards a gradual reduction in the amount of public spending on colonization projects and shifting their burden on the local population and immigrants themselves is increasingly evident. The documents also reflected the difficulties in the practical implementation of the provisions of the instructions, stemming from both the low efficiency of the Ottoman administrative system and the specifics of the traditional social structure of the migrants. Nevertheless, on the whole, there is undoubtedly consistent improvement in Porte’s methods and mechanisms of settlement and socio-economic adaptation of the North Caucasians in their new homeland.

Keywords: Ottoman Empire, North Caucasian immigrants, colonization, socio-economic adaptation, instructions on the settlement of immigrants.

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Tuaeva B.V., Gutieva E.Sh. Historical Experience of the Urban Estates Formation in the North Caucasus: Philistines in the Late 19th – Early 20th Century Print

The article explores the philistine class of the North Caucasus in the context of economic and socio-political processes. The peculiarities of formation and development of the philistine class in the cities of the North Caucasus are considered; its legal, social and economic aspects are analyzed. Created to meet state needs, the philistine community was introduced and affirmed among the citizens during the late imperial period of the Russian state. Gradually, becoming an integral part of the urban society, the middle class began to participate in the formation of city budgets, in their expenditure part. The money collected from the townspeople was spent on the maintenance of institutions, police, city services, improvement, improvement of state roads, etc. The state sought to regulate their employment, participate in the administration, monitor the entry and exit from the estate. Belonging to philistinism in many ways determined the status and financial situation of the townspeople. The analysis of the sources, in particular, of the First General Census of the Russian Empire for 1897 in the Terek and the Kuban Regions and the Stavropol Gubernia, as well as the materials of the Central State Archives of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, made it possible to recreate the picture of socioeconomic and political transformations taking place in the Terek region and to reveal the place of the philistine class in these processes. The study of the activity of the philistine class allows us to conclude that the burghers of the North Caucasian cities were notable for their social activity, and unlike the townspeople of the large Russian cities, they took more active part in the formation of city assemblies, in the meetings of the urban society. However, this feature could not affect the general trend of leveling the estates as stratum of a transforming society.

Keywords: commoners, urban estate, North Caucasus, provincial town, Russian Empire, social and economic environment, urbanization, social mobility, citizens.

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Khadikova A.Kh. Socio-Humanitarian Aspect of the Concept of "Ethnic Space" (on Example of the Ossetian Ethnos) Print

The article is devoted to the historical and anthropological analysis of "ethnic space " – a concept that is widely used, but does not have a certain categorical status in Ethnology. The article substantiates the need for a new understanding of many ethnic concepts by ethnologists in the application to specific peoples. The specificity, essence and content of the concept "ethnic space", its connection with the processes of ethnic self-identification of Ossetians is studied through two directions of scientific research. The first is to clarify the content of the concept, the second – to identify ways of its actualization in the ethnic reality of a particular Ossetian ethnic group. Based on his own research experience, the author argues that the semantic content, structure and instrumental functionality of the concept of "ethnic space" is correlated with the phenomenon of ethnicity and completely absorbs it. Moreover, the concept of "ethnic space / field" incorporates the prospect of the rise of ethnicity, the actualization of which is fraught with turning to political activity. The quality of the main markers of individual and collective ethnic identity, the basic concepts of ethnicity, outlining the "borders" of ethnic space have acquired relics of the socio-humanitarian sphere. A kind of "guarantor" of the category of ethnic space of the Ossetians is the phenomenon of historical memory. The main values and symbols of ethnicity are correlated with those components of the common cultural field, which can be considered "divided" and which reflect the circumstances of the historical path of this people, including its earliest stages. In their "own" ethnic environment, they are closely related to the ideas of vital and long-term ethnic interests, and in certain circumstances they can become part of the national idea of the North and South Ossetians.

Keywords: ethnic space, ethnicity, socio-humanitarian values, ethnic heritage, ethnic identity of the divided people, spiritual field, ethnic interests.

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Gutieva E.T., Sattsaev E.B. Etymological Approach to the Ossetian Lexeme Бӕх / Bӕh Print

Reviewing existing theories on the etymological development of the Ossetian lexeme бӕх / bӕh “horse, mare” suggests imperative to consider the whole complex of possible approaches and options: it can be a substrate word or a loan from a non-Indo-European language, it can be traced back to Indo-European or Iranian etymon, it can be Alan innovation proper. This word can be the result of a generalization of a semantic The substratum character of the word bӕh causes controversy from the moment of its appearance, it is critical to understand such factors as the vulnerability of the substratum nature of the Ossetian language, the singularity of the examples of this phenomenon leaves the question of the influence of the language of the aboriginal population on the language of the Ossetian ancestors open. The number of the parallels in the Caucasian languages is insufficient to justify the substratum approach, while outside the Caucasus the reflexes of the root are quite numerous. In addition, Caucasian reflexes are recorded only in closely related Nakh languages, and these reflexes are hyponyms of the Ossetian lexeme. Ossetian bӕh is regarded by a number of researchers as Turkism, re-borrowed over time into Turkic languages, where it is mainly represented as an initial element of the composite formation of bahmat. The hypothesis about the Iranian origin of the Ossetian word and the possible Iranian etymon goes back to H. Bailey and, in our opinion, is fruitful for further development. Such etymology unites into a system of cognates the facts scattered in the Indo-European languages, where phonetically and semantically similar exponent is recorded. We also bring into focus the Indo-Iranian root with the meaning "young animal". It is suggested not to disregard as possible cognates of бӕх / bӕh words with the meaning "male", "male animal". Similar semantic development is noted in such lexemes in quite a number of languages.

Keywords: hippological lexicon, hipponim, substrate, Alanism, Turkism, loanword, etymology, etymon.

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Dzaparova E.B. General and Special Issues of Literary Translation in T.A. Guriev’s Works: Translation of "The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish" by A.S. Pushkin Print

In the present article for the first time the contribution of Tamerlan Alexandrovich  Guriev to the science of translation is evaluated, points of view of the famous Ossetian scientist on general and special issues of literary translation in his research works are  provided. On the example of translations of lyrical works by A. Pushkin, G. Maliev, W. Shakespeare T. A. Guriev's approach to solving the linguistic problems of literary translation is considered, particularly, transferring of archaic words, phraseological units, proper names, interjections in the translated text. Special attention is paid to the comparative analysis of “The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish” by A. S. Pushkin in the original and its translation into the Ossetian language. In the Ossetian-language version of  A. S. Pushkin’s fairy tale T. A. Guriev managed to reproduce the genre features of the text, to preserve the elements of the original structure, its punctuation, the details of the narration. Careful approach to the reproduction of the language and form of the original verse allowed the translator to achieve structural and semantic correspondence in the translated text. Creative translator’s talent of T.A.Guriev is evident in the way he deals with archaic words, words-realities, idioms, evaluative lexemes. To transfer them the translator uses hyponymic translation, assimilated translation, explication, functional substitution, calques, mechanical transference and compensation method. The translation reflects the national-historical character, stylistic features of the original text. When translating archaisms translator Guriev resorted to the use of lexical equivalents in the translation, and compensated the unit of translation elsewhere to achieve balance. The translation transformations made it possible to preserve in the translation the communicative equivalence of the original text, one of the dominant components of literary translation.

Keywords: literary translation, fairy tale, A.S. Pushkin, T.A. Guriev, translation transformation, stylistic modification, calque, compensation, phraseology, word-reality, archaism.

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Tsallagova Z.B. Poetics of Minimalizm: Metaphor and Epithet in the Art System of the Ossetian Folk Aphoristics Print

The analysis of the artistic structure of the folklore works promotes deepening of the comprehension of their ideological and aesthetic heritage, national identity, cognitive and educational significance, which predetermines the relevance of the review of the functional specificity of such tropes of the Ossetian ethno-poetics as metaphors and epithets in proverbs, sayings, riddles, good wishes, curses. The scientific novelty of the present work lies in the consideration of the folklore layer, which has not been studied from this perspective so far. The nature of the specifics of the same tropes in related aphoristic subspecies has been studied for the first time. The aim of the work is to study the artistic specifics of the epithet and metaphor in the small genres of the folklore. The research is based on the application of the method of integral analysis of the aphoristic genres of the Ossetian folklore as a single multi-species artistic system, and the comparative-correlative method has proved to be useful for revealing the generality and differences in the nature of poetic paths in different genres of aphorism. The proposed approach has proved the aim of the specific use of tropes in small genres, dictated by minimalist poetics, to prove that epithets here are not only loaded with decorative function, but are rather charged semantically, and logical definitions take on ornamental functions as well. This ambivalent character of the epithet deepens the meaning of the aphoristic phrase and contributes to its laconic formulation. Minimalism is facilitated by the genre-specific use of the metaphor: the metaphor that is absent in the aphoristic text is prompted by the context, the situation. Along with the generally aphoristic nature of the use of tropes, the use of metaphor and epithet in creating imagery in each of the aphoristic subspecies has its own characteristics. Proverbs, through metaphors, make broad generalizations; in the puzzle-metaphor, the connection between the object and the image of the metaphor is weak, arbitrary, and is aimed at making it difficult to guess; in the poetic system of goodwill and curses that have antonymous semantics, as metaphorical images, contrasting phenomena of nature are used. The epithet in proverbs expands and deepens the self-mystical nuances; in riddles, as a rule, it contains specific information about the color, size, shape of the object, contributing to the cliche, and in good wishes and curses it both characterizes the word it attributes and supplies it with some emotional coloring.

Keywords: aphorism, proverb, byword, oath, riddle, goodwill, curse, trope, epithet, metaphor.

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Dzlieva Dz.M. Ossetian Myth-Religious Songs in Honor of Alardy Print

Ossetic folk calendar is a complex system for counting and regulating year period. One of the most revered among all Ossetic folk calendar holidays, is the one honoring the patron of smallpox, measles and eye diseases – Alardy. Rather good preservation of the musical component of the cult may account for its popularity. According to our informants, the obligatory attribute of rituals in honor of the patron of smallpox was the performance of the songs "Alardyan zaræg" (Songs honoring Alardy). Sources for the study were the collections of "Iron Adæmon Sfældystad", "Ossetic Folk Art Monuments", as well as materials from the V.I. Abaev NOIHSS VSC Scientific Archive and our own field researches. The musical material "Alardyæn zaræg" is fairly well represented in the V.I. Abaev NOIHSS VSC Scientific Archive and personal author’s audio-fund. The study analyzed more than 20 samples of songs in honor of Alardy. Poetic features of the texts are revealed, special attention is paid to the harmonic and melodic features of the songs. General observations relate to the dynamics of historical development associated with the extinction of the cult and the loss of contexts for the performance of ritual songs. Analysis of the musical component of the Alardy cult, which reflects the ancient religious beliefs and beliefs of the people, makes it possible to conclude that the body of songs in honor of this patron, in the past consisted of three typological groups performed in various ritual contexts. However, over time, the cult of the Ossetic patron of smallpox gradually faded away, and therefore healing songs and songs performed by women, in honor of Alardy during the Tulanta rite completely disappeared.

Keywords: musical folklore, Ossetic folk calendar, ceremonial songs, Alardy, Ossetic ethnomusicology

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Alieva F.A., Mukhamedova F.Kh., Gasharova A.R. Modern Tendencies of the Existence of Traditional Folklore Genres of the Peoples of Dagestan (on the material of fairy tales of the Dargins) Print

The fate of the traditional folklore genres in the modern era, the features of their existence, their exposure to changes under the influence of the new reality – these and many other issues naturally arise when setting the problem of the study of the current state of genres of traditional folklore of the peoples of Dagestan. This problem is very extensive, as it covers the whole range of issues related to the degree of stability of oral-poetic traditions in certain regions, the existence of genres, the identification of their local features. Traditional genres of folklore, as noted by a number of researchers (L. G. Barag, T. G. Leonova, N. M. Vedernikova, E. V. Pomerantseva, etc.) are subject to certain changes in the contemporary period. They note the general picture of the decay and gradual extinction of folklore (there are overcome their age some types of ceremonial poetry, ballads, became extinct the heroic epic tradition, etc.). The transformation processes also touched upon the genres of Dagestan folk tales, in particular in folklore of Dargins, one of the ethnic group of multinational Dagestan. The material shows that not all fairy-tale genres are preserved in the form, in which they were active during their heyday. In the present article it is shown that the fairy tradition undergoes changes, which occur during reconsidering traditional fairy plots and the creation on their basis of new ones, reflecting elements of the modern reality. On the basis of the comparative analysis of the texts of fairy tales from traditional repertoire and their variants, fixed by us in the Dargin districts (Dahadaev, Kaytag, and oth.) we have identified characteristic features of the change of fairy tale structure and the penetration into the fairy style modern elements, etc. We came to the conclusion that in the long process of historical development of society and the evolution, that the people's worldview has undergone, texts changed, was reinterpreted, obtained new contents. It is reflected in specific art techniques and means. An interesting feature of the modern existence of fairy tales is the introduction into the narrative different comments from the narrator himself. In the type of narration there is also a digression from the traditional fairy canons: there is an intertwining of archaic elements with later overlays, their variation and reinterpretation, etc.

Keywords: traditional folklore, genres, modernity, influence, changes, fairy tale, archaic elements, artistic techniques, composition, origins, structure, type of narrative.

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Malkonduev Kh.Kh. Ethnonyms, Toponyms and Anthroponyms in the Karachay-Balkar Nart Epic and in the Ancient Monuments as a Historical Source Print

The article briefly surveys epic toponyms, ethnonyms and anthroponyms, found in the Karachay-Balkarian version of the Nartiada. A number of examples, having analogies in related works in Turkic and geographical names, are given. Particular attention is paid to Alan-Digor hydronyms, which are often found in the gorges of Balkaria and in the context of the Narts’ legends of the Karachais and Balkars. The scientific explanation of these names is given. Based on the research of the scientists, experts on onomastics, a number of examples of ancient ethnonyms «As» and «Alan» are given, their place in Karachay-Balkarian epos «Narts» is determined. For the first time in the national nartology, the anthroponym Kaynar teyri (Poppling god) is explained. The image of this deity, who is of the most ancient characters of the Karachay-Balkarian heroic epos, is considered in comparative aspect with the oldest mythological deity of Turkic paganism Kayrakan (Poppling). Comparative study of a number of the folklore texts and scientific literature on the ancient beliefs of the Turkic tribes also revealed, that the motive of heavenly origin of the wise sorceress Satanay (Satan, Sataney-Guasha) in the Karachay-Balkarian epos «Narts» echoes in content with the motives of mythological legends of the ancients Turks. Analysis of onomastic terminology of the Karachais and Balkarians showed, that the origin of the names of a number of stones in the Chegem gorge is associated with the names of the Narts’ heroes (Sosuruknu tashi «Sosruk's stone», Gemuda-Sekirgen-tash «Stone-Over-Which- Gemuda-Jumped», etc.), which confirms close connection between the content of the heroic epos and the material culture of the people. In our opinion, this phenomenon is connected with the historical memory of the ethnos and the historicism of the Narts’ epos.

Keywords: heroic epos, onomastics, anthroponyms, ethnos, Turkic tribes, Alan, Caucasus, Digorians.

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Gostieva L.K. From the History of the Creation of the "Ossetian-Russian-German Dictionary" by V.F. Miller Print

A special place in the scientific heritage of Vsevolod Fyodorovich Miller is compilation of the Ossetian-Russian-German dictionary. The publication of the dictionary in 3 volumes took place in 1927-1934 after the death of the scientist himself. This event was preceded by a long and painstaking work, in which a large creative team of like-minded people from the representatives of the Ossetian intelligentsia was involved. Published excerpts from the correspondence between V.F. Miller and G.V. Baev give a clear idea of the work accomplished. The letters covering the period from 1891 to 1908 were extracted from the collections of the Russian State Archive of Literature and Art (RGALI) and the Scientific Archive of SOIGSI. A selection of materials from the correspondence allows to trace the progress of the work on the "Ossetian-Russian-German Dictionary" at the specified time, to clarify the participation in its compilation of G.V. Baev, I.T. Sobiev, U.V. (Tsotsko) Ambalov, A.Z. Kubalov and others. Of special interest for the history of the Ossetian studies is the information V.Miller shared with G.Baev. This testifies to the changes that were introduced into the structure of the dictionary, the stages of its preparation for punlication. The scientist gave detailed instructions to those working on the dictionary: he asked to pay attention to the importance of recording original folklore texts, not translations; use scientific transcription from the first part of the "Ossetian Etudes"; accurately denote stresses in two-syllable or polysyllabic words, deduce rules for accentuations in declensions and conjugations, and so on. The materials of the letters testify to the scientific and organizational problems faced by V.Miller and the compilers of the dictionary in Ossetia. The published documents make it possible to consider the correspondence between V.Miller and G.Baev as one of the important sources for studying the history of the creation of the "Ossetian-Russian-German Dictionary".

Keywords: V.F. Miller, G.V. Baev, Ossetian-Russian-German dictionary, Ossetian intelligentsia, correspondence.

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Kravchuk O.S. On the 130th anniversary of Ilas Arnigon Print

The presented publication is devoted to these two dates. The article traces the dramatic and tragic events of the life and work of this original Ossetian writer. The author notes that the life and creative way of Arnigon has not been the subject of special consideration so far. There are only a few articles that cover the basic facts of his biography. The presented material is an attempt to combine disparate biographical data, to give a more complete picture of the stages of its civil and creative development. Arnigon spent much of his conscious life far from Ossetia. The presented material is an attempt to combine disparate biographical data, to give a more complete picture of the stages of its civil and creative development. Arnigon spent much of his conscious life far from Ossetia. Like thousands of Ossetian youths, he left his father's house in search of a better life, and for many years lived in the Far East, Manchuria. The main purpose of the young man was not wealth: "I went North to find knowledge" and to return "to Ossetia strong as a lion", – he wrote in one of his poems. Nevertheless his efforts were labeled "nationalistic" and "counterrevolutionary". He was executed by a firing squad in 1938, at the age of 49. His literary legacy is not large, and only a small part of it is available for the readers. His life experience is summarized with metaphorical accuracy in Shamil Dzhigkaev's sonnet, that concludes the tragic life and destiny of the classic of Ossetian literature of the beginning of the XX century.

Keywords: Ilas Arnigon (Gazak Toguzov), Ossetian literature, Ossetian writer, poetry, repressed writers, Ossetian grammar

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